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Spirits in the machine: Artificial Intelligence and African religious practices

Spirits in the machine: Artificial Intelligence and African religious practices
April 02
08:29 2024

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is influencing different areas of human existence, including religion, by providing new tools and perspectives on age-old practices. President George W. Bush has said, “We must make technology an asset for all, not a liability for some.” In the African context, where spirituality and tradition play major roles in daily life, AI’s impact on religious practices is profound and multifaceted. AI technologies like machine learning, natural language processing, and robotics should be integrated into the different aspects of African religious practices to allow new ways of connection with the divine, ancestors, and spiritual forces.

Communication is an area where AI will influence African religious practices as AI-powered chatbots and virtual assistants will be used by religious leaders and practitioners to offer guidance, answer questions, and deploy spiritual counseling. These technologies enable more personalized interactions and can serve a larger audience, which transcends physical boundaries and time constraints. The preservation and dissemination of traditional knowledge and practices is another area. AI technologies will help to digitize ancient texts, artifacts, and rituals, making them more accessible to younger generations and scholars. Such digital preservation makes sure that the rich cultural and spiritual heritage of Africa is not lost to time. Also, AI will change the way rituals and ceremonies are conducted in African religions. Robotics and automation will help to perform intricate rituals and ceremonies, lowering the reliance on human practitioners and ensuring consistency and accuracy in the ritual processes.

Traditional African religious beliefs and practices are firmly founded on the continent’s history and culture, which dates back thousands of years. Connected with these beliefs is the concept of a spiritual world occupied by various entities, including spirits, ancestors, and divine forces. These are known to play important roles in guiding and influencing the lives of individuals and communities.

Some religions believe that spirits are supernatural beings that occupy the natural world and could influence human affairs. They are often affiliated with specific natural elements, like rivers, mountains, and trees, and are respected for their power and wisdom. African traditional religions view spirits as intermediaries between the physical and spiritual realms, and their worship is foundational to several rituals and ceremonies.


Ancestors are another key constituent of African religious practices, which represent the spirits of deceased relatives that continue to play a role in the lives of those living. Ancestor veneration is widely accepted in several African cultures, with rituals and ceremonies devoted to honoring and appeasing the spirits of such ancestors. Ancestors are considered to protect their descendants, offer guidance, and secure the continuity of the family lineage.

Divine forces, often called gods or deities, are also prominent in African religious beliefs. These are powerful supernatural beings believed to be in charge of various aspects of the natural world like the weather, fertility, and prosperity. Worship of these deities is usually accompanied by sacrifices, prayers, and offerings, in the hope of their favor and protection.

Also, the practice of traditional African religions is laced with a deep reverence for the natural world and a belief in the interconnectedness of all beings. Rituals and ceremonies are carried out to maintain harmony with the spiritual world, seek guidance and protection, and ensure the well-being of the community.


Understanding the historical perspectives of African religious practices is necessary to appreciate the cultural richness and diversity of the continent. These beliefs and practices continue to affect African societies today, sculpting their worldview, values, and identity. As Africa embraces modernization and faces new challenges, the preservation and revitalization of traditional religious practices are an important aspect of cultural heritage and identity.

The afore places a huge responsibility on technology as it gains acceptance in African societies, with growing access to digital tools and the internet reforming various aspects of daily life. While access to technology differs across the continent, there is a general trend towards growing connectivity and digitalization. This impacts how people engage with their faith and religious traditions.

Firstly, technology affects African religious practices in the ability to offer access to religious teachings online. Several religious organizations and spiritual leaders now leverage digital platforms to reach a wider audience, streaming teachings, sermons, and religious ceremonies online. This has not only improved the reach of religious messages but also offered a platform for African religious leaders to reach a global audience.

Moreover, technology has made possible new forms of religious expression and community building. Social media platforms, for instance, have become virtual spaces where believers can share their faith, connect with like-minded individuals, and participate in online religious communities. This has been specifically important for Africans living in the diaspora, letting them maintain a sense of connection to their cultural and religious roots.


However, it is necessary to know that the impact of technology on African religious practices is not entirely positive. There are concerns about the potential for technology to erase traditional practices and beliefs, especially among younger generations who are more influenced by digital media. Also, there are hurdles related to access and the digital divide. Rural and marginalized communities usually have limited access to technology and the Internet.

In Nigeria, the Daystar Christian Center has leveraged technology to improve its religious practices. The church uses social media platforms like Facebook and YouTube to live-stream its services, reaching a wider audience beyond its physical congregation. Also, the church has developed a mobile app that offers access to sermons, devotionals, and event information, improving engagement with its members while enhancing communication.

In Ethiopia, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church has engaged technology to secure its ancient religious texts and artifacts. The church is in partnership with digital preservation organizations to digitize its manuscripts, paintings, and religious artifacts. This ensures their long-term preservation and accessibility. The initiative has not only assisted with safeguarding the church’s cultural heritage but also improved scholarly research and public education.

These case studies show the diverse ways in which AI and technology are being integrated into religious practices in African countries. While the specific applications may differ, the overarching trend is the use of technology to improve engagement, preserve cultural heritage, and grow the reach of religious organizations.


When comparing the adoption and integration of AI in religious practices between African and European countries, some differences and similarities emerge. In terms of adoption, European countries usually have higher levels of technological infrastructure and internet penetration, which facilitates the integration of AI into religious practices. This is reflected in the use of AI-powered chatbots for answering religious queries, live-streaming of religious services, and virtual reality (VR) experiences for enhancing spiritual journeys that are found in some European churches.

In contrast, African countries face hurdles related to access to technology and internet connectivity that limit the adoption of AI in religious practices. However, innovative solutions, like the use of mobile phones for remote healing sessions in Zimbabwe, showcase the flexibility of African religious institutions to leverage technology for spiritual purposes.


Culturally, African and European countries have different religious traditions and values, which influence the adoption of AI in religious contexts. For example, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church seeks to digitize ancient religious texts to align with the cultural emphasis on preserving heritage and history. In comparison, European churches would focus more on the use of AI to improve community engagement and outreach.

Societal factors also contribute to the adoption of AI in religious practices. In African countries, where communal worship is foundational to religious life, technology is used to improve connectivity and inclusivity within religious communities. European countries, with more individualistic societal norms, would give priority to personalized spiritual experiences through AI-driven applications.


The integration of AI in African religious practices offers both challenges and opportunities that need to be carefully examined. One challenge is the preservation of cultural and traditional values in the face of technological advancements. As AI becomes more accepted in religious contexts, there is a risk of diluting or misrepresenting traditional practices. It is necessary to find a balance between embracing new technologies and preserving cultural heritage.

Another bottleneck is the ethical considerations that surround the use of AI in religious settings. For example, the use of AI-powered chatbots for guidance raises questions about the authenticity and integrity of religious teachings. There is a need for clear guidelines and ethical frameworks to govern the use of AI in these contexts to make sure that it is used appropriately.


Access to technology is also a huge challenge in several African countries. Limited infrastructure and internet connectivity can stall the adoption of AI in religious practices. Efforts must be made to bridge the digital divide and make sure that all communities have similar access to the benefits of AI technology.

Despite these hurdles, the integration of AI in African religious practices also presents notable opportunities. AI has the potential to improve the accessibility and inclusivity of religious services, allowing people to engage in worship from anywhere in the world. It could also help preserve ancient religious texts and artifacts, ensuring that they are available to future generations.

The future of AI in African religious practices will help improve how people engage with spirituality and culture. There will be continued integration of AI-powered technologies in religious rituals and ceremonies. We should expect the widespread use of AI chatbots for spiritual guidance, virtual reality for immersive religious experiences, and AI algorithms for the interpretation of religious texts and teachings.

Another trend is the growing digitization of religious practices, with more religious organizations embracing online platforms and social media for outreach and community engagement. This shift towards digital platforms should lead to a more inclusive and globally connected religious community, transcending geographical boundaries.

Furthermore, AI could democratize access to religious knowledge and teachings, allowing individuals to deepen their spiritual practices independently. AI algorithms would personalize religious experiences based on each beliefs and preferences, allowing a more tailored and meaningful connection to spirituality.

However, these trends also pose important ethical and societal concerns. It is necessary to ensure that AI is used responsibly and ethically in religious contexts, respecting cultural diversity and traditions. Also, there are concerns about the impact of AI on human-to-human interactions and the diminishing role of traditional religious leaders in a digitized religious landscape.

In conclusion, this paper has considered the intersection of artificial intelligence and African religious practices, stating the evolving nature of spirituality in the digital age. We have looked into how AI is being applied to various aspects of religious life, from enhancing spiritual experiences to improving access to religious teachings and guidance. Through case studies and comparative analyses, we have seen the diverse ways in which AI is shaping religious practices in African countries. We have also noted the cultural, ethical, and societal hurdles that accompany such innovation. The adoption of AI in religious contexts has the potential to democratize access to spiritual knowledge, foster global connections among believers, and provide new forms of religious expression. However, as AI continues to influence African religious practices, it is important to approach these developments with a critical and ethical lens. Preserving cultural heritage and ensuring inclusivity should be central considerations in embedding AI into religious life. Additionally, further research is necessary to understand the long-term implications of AI on spirituality and community cohesion. As I close with Paul Hawken, who touts “The future belongs to those who understand that doing more with less is compassionate, prosperous, and enduring, and thus more intelligent, even competitive.”

Thank you for the investment in time. You can get more of my curated thoughts on my Medium: and LinkedIn: or send an email to [email protected]

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